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Home » Course Descriptions

Biology Course Descriptions (2006-2008)



Unless otherwise stated below, each course meets for three lecture hours a week for one semester.

Lower-Division Courses


BIO 101C, 301C, 401C, 601C. Topics in Biology. Topics in biology that are especially relevant to current issues and problems in modern society. For each semester hour of credit earned, one lecture hour a week for one semester. Some topics require one additional discussion hour or three or four additional laboratory hours a week; these are identified in the Course Schedule. May be repeated for credit when the topics vary. May not be counted toward a degree in biology. Some sections are offered on the pass/fail basis only; these are identified in the Course Schedule. Prerequisite: Varies with the topic and is given in the Course Schedule.

BIO 301D. Biology for Business, Law, and Liberal Arts. Designed for nonscience majors. The scientific method and the social uses of scientific information. Topics include diet and chronic disease, radiation biology, DNA fingerprinting, the biology of learning, conservation of biotic diversity, and the biology of reproduction. May not be counted toward a degree in biology.

BIO 301E. Problems in Modern Biology. An introduction to major concepts in biology, with emphasis on topics, such as genetics, that are relevant to current issues in the field. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Biology 301E and 301L may not both be counted; Biology 301E and 301M may not both be counted. May not be counted toward a degree in biology. Prerequisite: Admission to the Plan II Honors Program.

BIO 301L. Molecules to Organisms. Designed for nonscience majors. Introduction to the structure and function of organisms from the molecular to the organ system level; an integrated approach to cell and molecular biology, genetics, development, and physiology of organisms. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Only one of the following may be counted: Biology 301L, 302, 211, 311C; only one of the following may be counted: Biology 301L, 303, 311D, 214. Biology 301E and 301L may not both be counted. May not be counted toward a degree in biology.

BIO 301M. Ecology, Evolution, and Society. Designed for nonscience majors. Introduction to environmental adaptations, diversity of organisms, species interactions, organization and processes of communities, population growth and limitations, evolution and population genetics, origin of life, and human impact on the environment. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Only one of the following may be counted: Biology 301M, 304, 311D, 213. Biology 301E and 301M may not both be counted. May not be counted toward a degree in biology.

BIO 102C, 202C, 302C, 402C. Conference Course. Supervised study of selected topics in biology, by individual arrangement with the School of Biological Sciences and instructor. May be repeated for credit. Some sections are offered on the pass/fail basis only; these are identified in the Course Schedule. Prerequisite: Varies with the topic and is given in the Course Schedule.

BIO 305E. Plants, Environment, and Human Affairs. Designed for nonscience majors. Plants and the environment, including basic ecological principles and major issues such as global warming and the biodiversity crisis; plants and society, including foods, beverages, medicines, drugs, and other plant products. May not be counted toward a degree in biology.

BIO 305F. An Introduction to the Sensory Physiology of Plants. Designed for nonscience majors. Exploration of the ways plants sense information about their environment and adapt their growth accordingly; similarities between plant and animal sensory physiology. May not be counted toward a degree in biology.

BIO 205L. Laboratory Experiments in Biology: Cellular and Molecular Biology. Designed to give lower-division students training in laboratory techniques and experiment design and interpretation. One lecture hour and four laboratory hours a week for one semester. Biology 205L and 309H may not both be counted. Prerequisite: Credit or registration for Biology 211 or 311C.

BIO 406D. Native Plants. Designed for nonscience majors. Introduction to the flora of central Texas. Involves plant identification, distribution, and consideration of edible and useful wild plants. Two lecture hours and six laboratory hours a week for one semester, including field trips. May not be counted toward a degree in biology.

BIO 206L. Laboratory Experiments in Biology: Structure and Function of Organisms. The organizing principles of organismal biology, such as reproduction, development, homeostatic mechanisms, transport mechanisms, communication and effector systems, and adaptive biomechanics. Comparative study and an experimental rather than an observational context are emphasized. One lecture hour and four laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Credit or registration for Biology 311D or 214.

BIO 307D. Biology of AIDS. Designed for nonscience majors. Introduction to organs, cells, genes, viruses, infectious diseases, and the immune system. Basic biology of HIV, AIDS, and epidemiology. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. May not be counted toward a degree in biology.

BIO 208L. Field Biology. Field projects, laboratory exercises, field trips, and computer simulation exercises to acquaint students with the principles and applications of ecology and some of the experimental and descriptive methods of ecological investigations. One lecture hour and four laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Credit or registration for Biology 311D or 213.

BIO 309D. The Human Body. Designed for nonscience majors. Introduction to the systems of the body, their functions and interrelationships. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. May not be counted toward a degree in biology. May not be taken for credit after or at the same time as another physiology course.

BIO 309F. Heredity, Evolution, and Society. Designed for nonscience majors. An elementary course in human genetics and its social impact. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Only one of the following may be counted: Biology 309E, 309F, 346. May not be counted toward a degree in biology. May not be taken for credit after or at the same time as another genetics course.

BIO 309H. Honors Laboratory Experiments in Biology: Cellular and Molecular Biology. Training in laboratory techniques in cellular and molecular biology. The laboratory also emphasizes experimental design and data analysis. One lecture hour and six laboratory hours a week for one semester. Biology 205L and 309H may not both be counted. Prerequisite: Biology 211 or 311C, and Chemistry 301, with a grade of at least B in each, and consent of instructor.

BIO 211. Introductory Biology: Cell Biology. Introduction to macromolecules; the structure, organization, and physiology of cells; organelles and membranes; energy transformation and metabolism in cells. Two lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Only one of the following may be counted: Biology 301L, 302, 211, 311C. Prerequisite: Credit or registration for Chemistry 301 or 313N.

BIO 311C. Introductory Biology I. Introduction to biological energy transformation, cell structure and physiology, and gene expression. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Only one of the following may be counted: Biology 301L, 302, 211, 311C. Biology 311C and 212 may not both be counted. Prerequisite: Credit or registration for Chemistry 301 or 313N.

BIO 311D. Introductory Biology II. Introduction to mechanisms of inheritance, evolution, physiology, and species interactions. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Only one of the following may be counted: Biology 301L, 303, 311D, 214. Only one of the following may be counted: Biology 301M, 304, 311D, 213. Prerequisite: Biology 211 and 212 with a grade of at least C in each, or Biology 311C with a grade of at least C.

BIO 212. Introductory Biology: Genetics and Evolution. Introduction to Mendelian and chromosomal inheritance, molecular genetics, bacterial and viral genetics, population genetics, evolutionary mechanisms and speciation. Two lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Biology 311C and 212 may not both be counted. Prerequisite: Credit or registration for Biology 211.

BIO 213. Introductory Biology: Diversity and Ecology. Introduction to the evolution of life, the diversity of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, population biology, species interactions, the organization of biological communities and ecosystems. Two lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Only one of the following may be counted: Biology 301M, 304, 311D, 213. Prerequisite: Biology 211 and 212 with a grade of at least C in each, or Biology 311C with a grade of at least C.

BIO 214. Introductory Biology: Structure and Function of Organisms. Introduction to the physiology, anatomy, development, control systems, and evolution of plants and animals. Two lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Only one of the following may be counted: Biology 301L, 303, 311D, 214. Prerequisite: Biology 211 and 212 with a grade of at least C in each, or Biology 311C with a grade of at least C.

BIO 315H. Advanced Introduction to Genetics: Honors. Restricted to biology and biochemistry majors. Basic principles of genetics and cell biology. Emphasis on gene structure and regulation; transmission of heritable traits; structure and function of cells; bacterial and viral genetics; and recombinant DNA technology. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Prerequisite: A score of 4 or 5 on the College Board Advanced Placement Examination in Biology and credit or registration for Chemistry 301.

BIO 416K (TCCN: BIOL 2401). Physiology and Functional Anatomy I. Designed for prenursing and allied health students. Not recommended for premedical and predental students. Cell biology and histology; biochemistry; nervous, endocrine, and musculoskeletal systems. Taught in an integrated lecture-laboratory format. Three lecture hours, three laboratory hours, and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Prerequisite: For nutrition majors, Biology 211 or 311C, and Nutrition 311, with a grade of at least C in each; for others, Biology 211 or 311C with a grade of at least C and six semester hours of coursework in college chemistry.

BIO 416L (TCCN: BIOL 2402). Physiology and Functional Anatomy II. Designed for prenursing and allied health students. Not recommended for premedical and predental students. Cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, digestive, immune, and reproductive systems. Taught in an integrated lecture-laboratory format. Three lecture hours, three laboratory hours, and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 416K with a grade of at least C.

BIO 318M. Biostatistics. Introduction to methods of statistical analysis of biological data. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Four semester hours of coursework in biology and either Mathematics 408D or 408L.

BIO 119S, 219S, 319S, 419S, 519S, 619S, 719S, 819S, 919S. Topics in Biology. This course is used to record credit the student earns while enrolled at another institution in a program administered by the University's Center for Global Educational Opportunities. Credit is recorded as assigned by the study abroad adviser in the School of Biological Sciences. University credit is awarded for work in an exchange program; it may be counted as coursework taken in residence. Transfer credit is awarded for work in an affiliated studies program. May be repeated for credit when the topics vary. 



Upper-Division Courses

 

BIO 320. Cell Biology. Principles of eukaryotic cell structure and function; macromolecules, energetics, membranes, organelles, cytoskeleton, gene expression, signaling, division, differentiation, motility, and experimental methodologies. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Biology 320 and 326E may not both be counted. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C.

BIO 121C. Perspectives in General Microbiology. Adjunct to Biology 226R: additional reading and writing on microbial genetics and regulation. One lecture hour a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C, and credit or registration for Biology 226R.

BIO 121E. Perspectives in General Microbiology. Adjunct to Biology 226T: additional reading and writing on microbial cell structure and genetics. One lecture hour a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C, and credit with a grade of at least C or registration for Biology 226T.

BIO 321L. Aquatic Entomology. The taxonomy of aquatic insects; the use of aquatic insects in biomonitoring. Two lecture hours and three laboratory hours a week for one semester. Only one of the following may be counted: Biology 321L, 370C (Topic: Applied Aquatic Entomology), 384, 384K (Topic 13: Aquatic Entomology), 388 (Topic: Applied Aquatic Entomology). Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C.

BIO 322. Structure, Physiology, and Reproduction of Seed Plants. The principles of structure and functioning of higher plants; special attention to the dynamics of growth and development and reproduction. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C, Chemistry 302, and concurrent enrollment in Biology 122L.

BIO 122L. Structure, Physiology, and Reproduction of Seed Plants Laboratory. Observation of structure and reproduction in seed plants and employment of experimental techniques that demonstrate physiological processes, especially processes of growth and development. Two laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Concurrent enrollment in Biology 322.

BIO 323L. Laboratory Studies in Cell Biology. Research exercises involving light/electron microscopy, image processing, autoradiography, chromatography, fractionation, flow cytometry, spectroscopy, diffraction, antibody labeling, cell growth, and kinetics. One lecture hour and four laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C, and credit or registration for Biology 320.

BIO 324. Survey of the Plant Kingdom. Review of the groups of living and fossil plants, emphasizing their organization, reproduction, and evolution. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C, and concurrent enrollment in Biology 124L.

BIO 124L. Survey of the Plant Kingdom Laboratory. Demonstration of members of various plant groups, using cultures and prepared materials, to emphasize organization, reproduction, and evolution. Two laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Concurrent enrollment in Biology 324.

BIO 325. Genetics. Basic principles of Mendelism, molecular genetics, structure and function of genes and chromosomes, populations and evolution. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Biology 325 and 325H may not both be counted. Prerequisite: Biology 211 or 311C, and 311D or 214, with a grade of at least C in each.

BIO 325H. Genetics: Honors. Basic principles of genetics and evolution. Emphasis on population genetics and natural selection; structure and function of organ systems; behavioral ecology; and mutational analysis of organismal development. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Biology 325 and 325H may not both be counted. Prerequisite: Biology 315H with a grade of at least C.

BIO 325L. Laboratory Experience in Genetics.
Experimentation and direct observation in fundamental aspects of transmission genetics. One lecture hour, four laboratory hours, and two hours of computing work a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C.

BIO 325T. Human Genetics. Human genetic variation, medical genetics, segregation and pedigree analysis, and population genetics. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C.

BIO 126L. General Microbiology Laboratory. Introduction to microbiology laboratory techniques and experimental demonstration of principles of microbiology. Three laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: For nursing majors, credit with a grade of at least C or registration for Biology 226N; for others, credit with a grade of at least C or registration for Biology 226R.

BIO 226N. General Microbiology: Immunity and Host-Microbe Interactions. For nursing majors. Basic characteristics of microorganisms; infection and immunity. Two lecture hours and one enrichment/discussion hour a week for one semester. May not be counted toward a degree in biology. Prerequisite: Biology 211 or 311C with a grade of at least C, and Chemistry 313N and 314N.

BIO 226R. General Microbiology: Microbial Cell Structure and Genetics. Microbial cell structure and function; introduction to microbial genetics and regulation. Two lecture hours and one enrichment/discussion hour a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H, and Chemistry 302, with a grade of at least C in each.

BIO 226T. General Microbiology: Virology, Immunology, and Host-Microbe Interactions. Overview of the interactions of microorganisms and the human host, including introductory virology, microbial pathogenesis, and the host response to infection. Two lecture hours and one enrichment/discussion hour a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C, and credit with a grade of at least C or registration for Biology 226R and 126L.

BIO 327. General Phycology. A general survey of the algae and of their biology. Only one of the following may be counted: Biology 327, 388J, Botany 385K. Prerequisite: Biology 324, 124L, and 325 or 325H, with a grade of at least C in each, and concurrent enrollment in Biology 127L.

BIO 127L. Laboratory in General Phycology. Survey of various algal groups, including direct observations of their biology, exposure to research techniques, and instruction in culture procedures. Three laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Credit with a grade of at least C or registration for Biology 327.

BIO 328. Introductory Plant Physiology. General principles of the mineral nutrition, water relations, metabolic activities, growth and development of green plants. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C, and Chemistry 302.

BIO 328D. Discovery Laboratory in Plant Biology. Learning methods of experimental design, data gathering, data interpretation, and data presentation, including original experiments relating to questions of current interest in plant physiology. Five lab hours a week for one semester. Biology 328D and 337 (Topic: Discovery Laboratory in Plant Biology) may not both be counted. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C.

BIO 128L. Laboratory Experiments in Plant Physiology. Introduction to experimental techniques used in the study of the mineral nutrition, water relations, metabolic activities, growth and development of green plants. Three laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Credit with a grade of at least C or registration for Biology 328.

BIO 329. Medical Mycology. A basic introduction to medical mycology and an overview of research involving both the fungal zoopathogen and its host. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C, and Biology 126L and 226R with a grade of at least C in each.

BIO 129L. Medical Mycology Laboratory. Basic techniques for the identification and manipulation of fungi of medical importance. Three laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 126L or 341 with a grade of at least C, and credit with a grade of at least C or registration for Biology 329.

BIO 129S, 229S, 329S, 429S, 529S, 629S, 729S, 829S, 929S. Topics in Biology. This course is used to record credit the student earns while enrolled at another institution in a program administered by the University's Center for Global Educational Opportunities. Credit is recorded as assigned by the student abroad adviser in the School of Biological Sciences. University credit is awarded for work in an exchange program; it may be counted as coursework taken in residence. Transfer credit is awarded for work in an affiliated studies program. May be repeated for credit when the topics vary.

BIO 329W. Cooperative Biological Sciences. This course covers the work period of biological sciences students in the Cooperative Education program, which provides supervised work experience by arrangement with the employer and the supervising instructor. Forty laboratory hours a week for one semester. The student must repeat the course each work period and must take it twice to receive credit toward the degree; at least one of these registrations must be during a long-session semester. No more than three semester hours may be counted toward the major requirement; no more than six semester hours may be counted toward the degree. The student's first registration must be on the pass/fail basis. Prerequisite: Application through the College of Natural Sciences Career Services Office; and Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C.

BIO 330. Animal Virology. Mechanisms by which viruses replicate and kill or transform cells. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C, and Biology 126L and 226T with a grade of at least C in each.

BIO 130L. Virology Laboratory. Basic experimental techniques applied to selected bacteriophages and animal viruses. Three laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H, and 126L with a grade of at least C in each, and credit with a grade of at least C or registration for Biology 330 or 333.

BIO 331L. Laboratory Studies in Molecular Biology. The methods and principles of molecular biology in a research laboratory context. Students conduct a research project directed by a faculty member. One lecture hour and six laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 205L, 206L, 208L, or 126L; and Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C.

BIO 332. Yeast Cell Biology. Yeast is used as a model to teach some of the more actively researched areas of cell biology, such as chromosome structure, mating type, cell-cell interaction, DNA replication, mitosis, cytoskeletal motors, cell polarity, signal transduction, cell cycle, checkpoints, secretion, protein modification, yeast genetics, and yeast technology. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C, and Biology 126L and 226R with a grade of at least C in each.

BIO 333. Molecular Genetics of Bacteriophages and Plasmids. Mechanisms of the phage infection cycle and of plasmid replication and gene expression; transposons and transposition. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C, and Biology 126L and 226R with a grade of at least C in each.

BIO 335. Introduction to Biochemical Engineering. Microorganisms in chemical and biochemical synthesis; genetic manipulation of cells by classical and recombinant DNA techniques. Enzyme technology; design of bioreactors and microbial fermentations; separations of biological products. Only one of the following may be counted: Biology 335, Biomedical Engineering 339, Chemical Engineering 339, 379 (Topic: Introduction to Biochemical Engineering). Prerequisite: Biology 311C with a grade of at least C, and either Chemistry 339K and 339L, or 369.

BIO 336. Tumor Biology. Natural history and causal mechanisms of cancer; viral and chemical carcinogens. Only one of the following may be counted: Biology 336, 391M, Microbiology 389M. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C, and Biology 330 or 360K with a grade of at least C.

BIO 137, 237, 337, 437. Selected Topics in Biology. Recent developments and research methods in the biological sciences. For each semester hour of credit earned, one lecture hour a week for one semester. Some topics may require additional hours; these are identified in the Course Schedule. May be repeated for credit when the topics vary. Some topics are offered on the pass/fail basis only; these are identified in the Course Schedule. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C. Additional prerequisites vary with the topic and are given in the Course Schedule. Topic 1: Human Biology. Restricted to human biology majors in their final semester. This topic is offered as 137 only. Additional prerequisite: Consent of the academic adviser.

BIO 337J. Computational Biology. Overview of computational biology, with emphasis on nucleic acid sequence analysis and databases. Class projects and self-learning exercises. Two lecture hours and three computer laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H, and 344 with a grade of at least C in each. 

BIO n437: Ecology, Conservation and Restoration, In Practice (Summer, 9-week) This class is unique by its focus on applications of ecological, social and economic management practices for sustainability, social equity and economic self sufficiency. It is designed for students to develop independence, creativity and team work while learning to develop sustainable practices. Former students have found these courses to be excellent preparation for “life after graduation” and several have also completed graduate degrees in public policy, conservation, “green” management and building or planning.

BIO 438L. Animal Communication. Animal communication from a multidisciplinary perspective, with emphasis on quantitative analysis, sensory processing, and evolution of signals. Three lecture hours and three laboratory hours a week for one semester, with computer laboratory hours as required. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C, and Biology 359K or 370 with a grade of at least C.

BIO 339. Metabolism and Biochemistry of Microorganisms. A study of the metabolic processes of microorganisms, using a biochemical approach. Biology 339 and 391R may not both be counted. Prerequisite: Biology 126L and 226R with a grade of at least C in each; Chemistry 310M and 310N (or 610); and Chemistry 339K or 369 with a grade of at least C.

BIO 339M. Bacterial Signal Transduction. Advanced studies in molecular and cellular biology of signal transduction systems in diverse microorganisms. Topics include chemotaxis and motility, morphogenesis and development, and secretion and virulence. Taught entirely through reading and discussion of original articles. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C, and Biology 126L and 226R with a grade of at least C in each.

BIO 340L. Biology of Birds. Anatomy, physiology, classification, and ecology of birds. Two lecture hours and three laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C.

BIO 342L. Field Ornithology. Field course with emphasis on field study techniques, species identification by sight and sound, mist netting and banding, censusing techniques, and territory mapping. Two lecture hours and six hours of weekend fieldwork a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C, and credit with a grade of at least C or registration for Biology 340L.

BIO 343M. Transmembrane Signaling Mechanisms. Mechanisms by which hormones, light, and other stimuli trigger changes in plant and animal cell metabolism. Only one of the following may be counted: Biology 343M, 388C, Botany 383M. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H, and Chemistry 339K with a grade of at least C in each.

BIO 344. Molecular Biology. Molecular basis of cellular processes: biochemistry of cellular metabolism; gene structure and function; DNA replication; RNA and protein synthesis; viruses; molecular aspects of immunology and cancer; recombinant DNA. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Biology 326D and 344 may not both be counted. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C.

BIO 345. Cell Physiology. An integrated approach to basic processes in physiology: metabolism, transport, energetics, molecular and cellular control mechanisms. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C, and Chemistry 310M.

BIO 345E. Endocrinology. Vertebrate endocrinology (primarily mammalian), with a focus on human pathophysiology. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Biology 337 (Topic: Endocrinology) and 345E may not both be counted. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C.

BIO 346. Human Biology. Introduction to human evolution, genetics, sexuality, senescence, and population growth. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Only one of the following may be counted: Biology 309E, 309F, 346. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C.

BIO 347. Biology and Genetics of Immune Disorders. Immune disorders in mammals, including humans, used as models for examining basic immunological and immunogenetic principles; emphasis on immune disorders of vertebrates. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C.

BIO 148, 248, 348. Training Cruise(s): Research in Biological Oceanography. Biology 148 and 348 are same as Marine Science 148 and 348 (Topic 1: Research in Biological Oceanography). One or more cruises of one to several days each to collect physical, chemical, oceanographic, and biological data relevant to biological processes in the sea. Preparatory instruction and postcruise sample processing and analysis. May be repeated for credit when the topics vary. Prerequisite: Biology 325 and Chemistry 302 with a grade of at least C in each, and consent of instructor.

BIO 448L. Invertebrate Biology. A study of the interdependent structure and function and of the evolution of invertebrate animals. Three lecture hours and three laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C.

BIO 349. Developmental Biology. Principles of animal development, with emphasis on developmental mechanisms. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C.

BIO 350M. Plant Molecular Biology. Fundamentals of plant molecular biology, including structure and expression of the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes. Only one of the following may be counted: Biology 350M, 388M, Botany 390M. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C.

BIO 351. Economic Botany. An in-depth analysis of the origin of domesticated plant species, the role in nature of plant products, and the ways natural products have been altered through artificial selection. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C. 

BIO 352. Reproductive Biology of Flowering Plants. Pollination biology, breeding systems, reproductive strategies, and fruit and seed dispersal from evolutionary and ecological vantage points. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C.

BIO 353F. Field Entomology. A field course on insects, with emphasis on field study techniques, visual identification of species, collecting techniques, and curation in the field. Meets five days a week for one hour a day during a summer-session term; additional fieldwork to be arranged, including extended field trips. Biology 353F and Biology 337 (Topic: Field Entomology) may not both be counted. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C.

BIO 353L. Entomology. Characteristics, importance, and biology of the major groups of insects. Two lecture hours and three hours of laboratory or fieldwork a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C.

BIO 354L. Ichthyology. Overview of the evolution, biology, and ecology of fishes, emphasizing freshwater fishes. Three lecture hours and three hours of laboratory or fieldwork a week for one semester, with field trips to be arranged. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C.

BIO 455L. Vertebrate Natural History. Phylogeny, taxonomy, life histories, habits, and distribution. Two lecture hours and three hours of laboratory or fieldwork a week for one semester, with field trips to be arranged. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C.

BIO 456L. Limnology and Oceanography. Same as Marine Science 440. Introduction to the study of the interactions between aquatic organisms and their environments. Two lecture hours and six laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C, and Chemistry 302.

BIO 357. Evolutionary Ecology. Principles of modern ecology, particularly as they relate to natural selection and evolutionary theory. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C.

BIO 458L. Systematics. Comparative study of biological variation of living and fossil organisms, including speciation, biogeography, taxonomy, and phylogeny of genes, populations, species, and higher taxa. Three lecture hours and four laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C.

BIO 359. Global Environmental Change. Global change as it affects terrestrial ecosystems, including feedback between ecosystems and the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases and global warming, ozone, biological invasions, and land-use change. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C, and Biology 322 or 324 with a grade of at least C.

BIO 359J. Behavioral Ecology. Advanced topics in behavioral ecology, with detailed consideration of animal communication, altruism, sexual selection, plant-animal interactions. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C, and Biology 359K or 370 with a grade of at least C.

BIO 359K. Principles of Animal Behavior. An introduction to the study of animal behavior: descriptive analysis of behavior; physiological basis of behavior; development of behavior; adaptive significance and evolution of behavior; communication and social behavior. Three lecture hours and one and one-half discussion hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C.

BIO 359R. Animal Sexuality. The biology of sexuality, including genetics, morphology, physiology, and psychology of sex. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C.

BIO 360K. Immunology. The basic concepts of humoral and cell-associated immune phenomena. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C, and Biology 126L, 226R, and 226T with a grade of at least C in each.

BIO 160L. Immunology Laboratory. Current techniques in experimental cellular and humoral immunology. Three laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Credit with a grade of at least C or registration for Biology 360K.

BIO 361. Human Infectious Diseases. Etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and immunobiology of the major microbial diseases, with emphasis on their prevention. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C, and Biology 126L, 226R, and 226T with a grade of at least C in each.

BIO 361L. Public Health Bacteriology Laboratory. Training in techniques required for independent work in diagnostic and epidemiological bacteriology. Two lecture hours and five laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C, and Biology 126L, 226R, and 226T with a grade of at least C in each.

BIO 361P. Public Health Internship. Students conduct goal-oriented research projects at the Texas Department of State Health Services and other sites. An average of twelve hours of fieldwork a week for a total of 180 hours of fieldwork for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 126L, 226R, and 226T, with a grade of at least B in each; students must also complete an application available at the Natural Sciences Career Services office.

BIO 361T. Comparative Animal Physiology. Physiology of organ systems in animal phyla, with special emphasis on physiological adaptations of organisms to their environment. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C.

BIO 262. Plant Systematics. Elementary principles of plant taxonomy as exemplified by families of flowering plants found seasonally around Austin. Two lecture hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C, and concurrent enrollment in Biology 262L.

BIO 262L. Angiosperm Diversity Laboratory. Practical experience in recognizing, identifying, and classifying families of flowering plants. Four laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C, and concurrent enrollment in Biology 262.

BIO 363. Plant Speciation. Nature of species in higher plants, speciation phenomena in plants, natural hybridization, polyploidy, agamospermy, evolutionary mechanisms. Lectures, readings, discussions, demonstrations. Only one of the following may be counted: Biology 363, 387E, Botany 382L. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C.

BIO 364. Microbial Ecology. The ability of microbes to adapt to and change their environment. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C, and Biology 126L and 226R with a grade of at least C in each.

BIO 364E. Current Topics in Advanced Microbial Ecology. Development and structure of microbial communities, microbial phylogeny, endosymbiont and symbiont relationships, biogeochemistry, elemental cycling by microbes, and the microbial ecology of disease. Emphasis on active research areas in these topics. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H, and 364 with a grade of at least C in each.

BIO 365D. Principles of Drug Action. Introduction to the basic principles of pharmacology, including how drugs get into the body, exert their actions, and are metabolized and excreted. Biology 337 (Topic: Principles of Drug Action) and 365D may not both be counted. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C.

BIO 365L. Neurobiology Laboratory. An introduction to physiological, morphological, and molecular techniques used for analysis of the nervous system. Experiments and computer simulations illustrate basics of information processing by the nervous system. Student exercises are supplemented with demonstrations in faculty laboratories. Four laboratory hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 205L, 206L, 309H, or 126L with a grade of at least C; Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C; and Biology 365R or 371M with a grade of at least C.

BIO 465M. Experimental Methods in Physiology. A lecture-laboratory course that emphasizes an experimental approach to physiological problems. One lecture hour and seven laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C, and Biology 345, 361T, 365R, or 371M with a grade of at least C. 

BIO 365N. Development and Plasticity of the Nervous System. An introduction to the principles by which the neural tube (brain and spinal cord) develops during embryogenesis, including regionalization of the brain into forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain, and spinal cord. Particular emphasis will be given to the mechanisms that govern how neurons acquire their identity and form neuronal circuits and synapses. Developmental and congenital diseases and possible therapies, including stem cell based therapy or gene therapy. Prerequisite: Biology 349 with a grade of at least C, and Biology 365R or 371M with a grade of at least C.

BIO 365R. Vertebrate Physiology I. Vertebrate systems physiology: basic cellular physiology, nervous and muscular systems. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Biology 365R and 371M may not both be counted. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C. 

BIO 365S. Vertebrate Physiology II. Vertebrate systems physiology: body fluids, cardiovascular system, respiration, digestion, metabolism, and endocrinology. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C, and Biology 361T, 365R, or 371M with a grade of at least C.

BIO 365T. Neurobiology of Disease. The neurobiological basis of disorders of the brain, with the main focus on mental illness. Emphasizes the neural circuitries and neurochemical events that underlie specific mental processes and behaviors. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C, and Biology 365R or 371M with a grade of at least C.

BIO 365W. Neurobiology of Addiction. Study of the neurobiology of neurotransmitters, and the influence of alcohol and drugs of abuse on neurotransmitters. Prerequisite: Biology 365R or 371M with a grade of at least C.

BIO 366. Microbial Genetics. Molecular biology of nucleic acids; biosynthesis of macromolecules, transfer of genetic material from cell to cell, recombination, mutagenesis, and regulatory mechanisms. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C, and Biology 126L and 226R with a grade of at least C in each.

BIO 366R. Molecular Genetics. Recommended for students planning to pursue advanced degrees in experimental and biochemical genetics. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C. 

BIO 367. Plant Genetics. Genes, gene systems, linkage systems, and genetic systems in higher plants. Only one of the following may be counted: Biology 367, 387C, Botany 387K. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C.

BIO 368L. Techniques in Molecular Genetics. Laboratory experience in mutagenesis, transformation, transduction, isolation of plasmid and bacteriophage DNA, in vitro recombinant DNA procedures, and DNA base sequencing. One lecture hour and seven laboratory hours a week for one semester. Only one of the following may be counted: Biology 368L, 390P, Microbiology 382L. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H, and 126L with a grade of at least C in each.

BIO 369L. Herpetology. Biology of amphibians and reptiles, including evolution, ecology, behavior, physiology, life history, and field identification. Three lecture hours and three laboratory hours a week for one semester, with weekend field trips to be arranged. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C, and Biology 455L, 357, 359K, or 478L with a grade of at least C.

BIO 370. Evolution. Introduction to modern evolutionary biology, focusing on the evolution of molecular, developmental, morphological, and behavioral traits. Genetic and ecological bases of evolutionary changes within populations and of evolutionary divergence in animals and plants. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Only one of the following may be counted: Biology 370, 385K (Topic 2: Evolution), Botany 387L, Zoology 382L (Topic 7: Evolution). Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C.

BIO 170C, 270C, 370C, 470C. Conference Course. Supervised study of selected topics in biology, by individual arrangement with the instructor. May be repeated for credit when the topics vary. Some sections are offered on the pass/fail basis only; these are identified in the Course Schedule. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C. Additional prerequisites vary with the topic and are given in the Course Schedule.

BIO 471G. Natural History Museum Science. An introduction to curatorial practices in natural history museums. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester; students also complete a twenty- to thirty-hour curatorial project. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C.

BIO 371L. Experimental Physiology. Experimental approach to physiological mechanisms by which animals adapt to their environment. One lecture hour, four laboratory hours, and two hours of computer work a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 205L, 206L, 208L, or 126L with a grade of at least C; and Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C.

BIO 371M. Neuronal Basis of Brain and Behavior. The nervous system, with emphasis on vertebrate neurobiology. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Biology 365R and 371M may not both be counted. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C.

BIO 472L. Taxonomic Plant Anatomy. An advanced course emphasizing those aspects of plant anatomy that are most reliable and useful for systematic purposes. Three lecture hours and two laboratory hours a week for one semester. Only one of the following may be counted: Biology 472L, 487G, Botany 484L. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C, and Biology 374 and 174L with a grade of at least C in each.

BIO 373. Ecology. An introduction to ecology, the study of relationships among organisms and between organisms and their environment; adaptations, population, communities, and ecosystems. Includes both plants and animals and both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Three lecture hours and one discussion hour a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C. 

BIO 373L. Ecology Laboratory. Intensive field ecology. Includes group field experiment and observation, independent projects, and field trips to other vegetation zones. Students complete weekly write-ups of observation and data analysis, reports of independent projects, and an oral presentation on an independent project. Four laboratory hours and two workshop/lecture hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Credit or registration for Biology 373.

BIO 374. Plant Anatomy with Histological Techniques. Tissue organization and cellular details of stems, roots, and leaves of seed plants, with emphasis on development and function. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C, and concurrent enrollment in Biology 174L.

BIO 174L. Laboratory in Plant Anatomy and Histological Techniques. Demonstration of cellular details and tissue systems of plant organs; instruction in the preparation of plant materials for histological examination. Three laboratory hours a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Credit with a grade of at least C or registration for Biology 374.

BIO 375. Conservation Biology. Application of principles of ecology to the preservation of wild plant and animal species and to the preservation, management, and restoration of natural and seminatural ecosystems. Emphasis on scientific, biological aspects of issues such as endangered species protection, preserve design, and forest management. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C, and Biology 357, 359J, or 373 with a grade of at least C.

BIO 376. Conservation Genetics. Genetic attributes of rare plant and animal species, especially as they affect conservation; germ plasm resource conservation in wild and domesticated species. Only one of the following may be counted: Biology 376, 385C, Botany 386C. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C.

BIO 177, 277, 377. Undergraduate Research. Laboratory or field research in the various fields of biological science under the supervision of one or more faculty members. May be repeated for credit. Up to three semester hours may be counted toward the major requirement for the Bachelor of Arts degree with a major in biology. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C, and written consent of instructor.

BIO 478L. Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy. Study of vertebrate morphology from developmental anatomy to the function, biomechanics, and phylogenetic relationships of living and fossil taxa. Three lecture hours and six laboratory hours a week for one semester. Biology 478L and Kinesiology 324K may not both be counted. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C.

BIO 478T. Natural Resource Management. Land management, policy and regulation development, and ecological "footprint" evaluation. Students have the opportunity for practical application of these subjects through off-campus field projects. Three lecture hours and two hours of discussion or fieldwork a week for one semester. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C; and one of the following courses or consent of instructor: Biology 351, 357, 373, 375, Geography 334, 346.

BIO 379G. Advanced Mammalian Genetics. Molecular developmental genetics and review of classical genetics. Possible topics include but are not limited to cancer, AIDS, forensic genetics, genomics, and gene therapy. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least B.

BIO 379H, 679H. Honors Tutorial Course. Original laboratory or field research project under the direction of a faculty mentor, leading to a thesis or research presentation for students in the honors program in biology. The equivalent of three or six lecture hours a week for one semester. May be repeated for credit, but no more than six hours may be counted toward a degree in biology. Prerequisite: Consent of the student's research supervisor and the departmental honors adviser.

BIO 379J. Regulation of Eukaryotic Gene Expression. Enrollment is limited to upper-division undergraduates. Study of gene expression and its regulation in eukaryotes at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Includes transcription, RNA splicing, polyadenylation, RNA and RNA-protein interactions. Prerequisite: Biology 325 or 325H with a grade of at least C; and Chemistry 339K and 339L, or Chemistry 369.